Medical Studies


2016: Voluntary Running Suppresses Tumor Growth through Epinephrine and IL-6 Dependent NK Cell Mobilization and Redistribution

Authors: Pedersen L, Adorn M, Olofsson GH, Lauenborg B, Nookaew I, Hansen RH, Johannesen HH, Becker JC, Pedersen KS, Dethlefsen C, Nielsen J, Gehl J, Pedersen BK, Straten P, Hojman P

Demonstrated that mice housed with running wheels had significantly less tumor growth. The mechanism is apparently mediated by NK cells with mobilzation enhanced by epinephrine released during exercise. In addition, an epinephrine injection alone reduced tumor burden nearly as much as exercise. Blocking epinephrine with propanol eliminated the exercise inhibition.

2016: Skeletal muscle action of estrogen receptor α is critical for the maintenance of mitochondrial function and metabolic homeostasis in females

Authors: Ribas V, Drew BG, Zhou Z, Phun J, Kalajian NY, Soleymani T, Daraei P, Widjaja K, Wanagat J, Aguiar Vallim TQ, Flutit AH, Bensinger S, Le T, Radu C, Whilegge JP, Beaven SW, Tontonoz P, Lusis AJ, Parks BW, Vergnes L, Reue K, Singh H, Bopassa JC, Toro L, Stefani E, Watt MJ, Schenk S, Akerstrom T, Kelly M, Pedersen BK, Hewitt SC, Krach KS, Hevener AL

Study showed that skeletal muscle estrogen receptors maintain mitochondrial health leading to increased scavenging of reactive oxygen species and insulin sensitivity. Estrogen receptors in skeletal muscle may play a role in preventing Type II diabetes mellitus.

2016: Zika virus in the Americas: Early epidemiological and genetic findings

Authors: Faria NR, et al.

The Zika virus may have arrived in Brazil from fans or athletes traveling to any number of Brazilian athletic events in 2013 and 2014. The Zika virus likely arose from a common ancestor to the Zika virus that resulted in an epidemic in French Polynesia during late 2013.

2015:A Systematic Review of Resistance Training Versus Endurance Training in COPD

Authors: Jepsen UW, Jorgensen KJ, Ringbaek T, Hansen H, Skrubbeltrang C, Lange P

A review of the effects of resistance training and endurance training in the regimen of a COPD-focused pulmonary rehabilitation. This systematic review found no evidence for a difference between resistance training and endurance training in increasing patient well-being.

2015: Postdinner resistance exercise improves postprandial risk factors more effectively than predinner resistance exercise in patients with type 2 diabetes

Authors: Heden TD, Winn NC, Mari A, Booth FW, Rector RS, Thyfault JP, Kanaley JA

Showed that resistance exercise after dinner was more effective at lowering triacylglycerols in the blood in diabetic patients than resistance exercise before dinner.

2014: Melatonin decreases muscular oxidative stress and inflammation induced by strenuous exercise and stimulates growth factor synthesis

Authors: Silva Borges L, Dermargos A, Silva Junior EP, Weimann E, Lambertucci RH, Hatanaka E

Found that ten days of melatonin reduced plasma levels of inflammatory markers and decreased oxidative stress in the muscle, while stimulating angiogenic signal VEGF. The models were rats exercised to exhaustion for about 50 minutes.

2014: ß-aminoisobutyric acid Induces Browning of White Fat and Hepatic Beta-Oxidation and Is inversely Correlated with Cardiometabolic Risk factors

Authors: Roberts LD, Bostrom P, O’Sullivan JF, Schinzel RT, Lewis GD, Dejam A, Lee Y, Palma MJ, Calhoun S, Georgiadi A, Chen M, Ramachandran VS, Larson MG, Bouchard C, Rankinen T, Souza AL, Clish CB, Wang TJ, Estall JL, Soukas AA, Cowan CA, Spiegelman BM, Gerzten RE

Discovered that BAIBA is secreted by PGC-1alpha expressing myocytes in response to exercise.  BAIBA generates brown fat in white adipose tissue through PPARalpha.  BAIBA was found to be inversely correlated with cardiometabolic risk factors in humans.

2014: The prevalence of exercise-associated hyponatremia in 24-hour ultra-mountain bikers, 24-hour ultra-runners and multi-stage ultra-mountain bikers in the Czech Republic

Authors: Chlibkova D, Knechtle B, Rosemann T, Zakovska A, Tomaskova I

Prevalence of hyponatremia was relatively low compared to the prevalence of dehydration.

2014: Maximal fat oxidation, but not aerobic capacity, is affected by oral contraceptive use in healthy women

Authors: Isacco L, Thivel D, Pereira B, Duclos M, Boisseau N

Showed that low-dose monophasic oral contraception raises maximum lipid oxidation during exercise in recreationally active women. The oral contraception had no significant effect on work output or VO2Max measured on cycle ergometer.

2014: Vitamin C and E supplementation hampers cellular adaptation to endurance training in humans: a double-blind, randomized, controlled trial,

Authors: Paulsen G, Cumming KT, Holden G, Hallen J, Ronnestad BR, Sveen O, Skaug A, Paur I, Bastani NE, Ostgaard HN, Buer C, Midttum M, Freuchen F, Wiig H, Ulseth ET, Garth I, Blomhoff R, Benestad HB, Raastad T

This human study showed that taking antioxidants vitamin C and vitamin E reduced the aerobic cellular training response to 11 weeks of endurance training.  However, no statistically significant changes in aerobic performance were measured.

2014: Influence of Pistachios on Performance and Exercise-induced Inflammation, Oxidative Stress, Immune Dysfunction, and Metabolite Shifts in Cyclists: A Randomized, Crossover Trial

Authors: Nieman DC, Scherr J, Luo B, Meaney MP, Dreau D, Sha W, Dew DA, Henson DA, Pappan KL

Showed that two weeks of pistachio consumption decreased performance on a 75-km time trial.  Interestingly, pistachio consumption was found to elevate plasma levels of raffinose, which may indirectly inhibit mitochondria function.

2014: Dehydration affects cerebral blood flow but not its metabolic rate for oxygen during maximal exercise in trained humans

Authors: Trangmar SJ, Chiesa ST, Stock CG, Kalsi KK, Secher NH, Gonzalez-Alonso J

This exercise physiology study finds that dehydration lowers cerebral blood flow during maximal exercise with no consequences for oxygen consumption.

2014: The Casual Role of Breakfast in energy balance and health: a randomized controlled trial in lean adults

Authors: Betts JA, Richardson JD, Chowdhury EA, Holman GD, Tsintzas K, Thompson D

This study found that skipping breakfast for 6 weeks has no affect on a variety of health factors including resting metabolic rate, relative and absolute body mass, fat composition, cholesterol levels, insulin sensitivity and a variety of metabolic regulating hormones.  However, those who ate breakfast had significantly higher levels of morning light physical activity.

2014: Executive Functioning in Highly Talented Soccer Players

Authors: Verburgh L, Scherder EJA, van Lange PAM, Oosterlaan J

This study found that several components of executive function correlate well with athlete success in the Netherlands’ national youth soccer academy.

2014:Geriatric muscle stem cells switch reversible quiescence into senescence

Authors: Sousa-Victor P, Gutarra S, Garcia-Prat L, Rodriguez-Ubreva J, Ortert L, Ruiz-Bonilla V, Jardi M, Ballestar E, Gonzalez S, Serrano AL, Perdiguero E & Munoz-Canoves P

Researchers found that aging muscle satellite cells undergo a transition from quiescence to irreversible senescence leading to impaired muscle fiber regeneration observed in elderly and progeria patients.  The molecule that causes this is p16INK4a.

2014: Physical activity reduces hippocampal atrophy in elders at genetic risk for Alzheimer’s disease

Authors: Smith JC, Nielson KA, Woodward JL, Seidenberg M, Durgerian S, Hazlett KE, Figueroa CM, Kandah CC, Kay CD, Matthews MA, Rao SM

This study found that physical activity reduced hippocampal atrophy in patients at risk of Alzheimer’s disease (carriers of the APOE ɛ4 allele).

2014: Exercise, APOE genotype, and the evolution of the human lifespan

Authors: Raichlen DA and Alexander GE

This article proposed that human lifespans increased 2 million years ago as our ancestors adopted higher levels of physical activity.  Evidence for this theory comes from the reduction of Alzheimer’s risk in APOE ɛ4 carriers.  They conclude that physical activity would have reduced the genetic constraints on lifespan.

2014: Cardiovascular and cognitive fitness at age 18 and risk of early-onset dementia

Authors:  Nyberg J, Aberg MA, Shioler L, Nilsson M, Wallin A, Toren K, Kuhn HG

This study found that 18 year olds who were determined to have low cardiovascular fitness or low cognitive performance had a higher risk of developing early-onset dementia.  The study utilized over one million participants who registered for conscription.

2014:Short-Term Effectiveness of a Lifestyle Intervention Program for Reducing Selected Chronic Disease Risk factors in Individuals Living in Rural Appalachia: A Pilot Cohort Study

Authors: Drozek D, Diehl H, Nakazawa M, Kostohryz T, Morton D, Shubrook JH

This study looked at participants in CHIP, a program that stresses small lifestyle interventions such as exercising, water hydration and eating whole foods.  Participants were found to show significant increase in health biomarkers after just four weeks.

2013: Genomic Signatures of a Global Fitness Index in a Multi-ethnic Cohort of Women

Authors: Rampersaud E, Nathanson L, Farmer J, Meshbane K, Belton RL, Dressen A, Cuccaro M, Musto A, Daunert S, Deo S, Hudson N, Vance JM, Seo D, Mendez A, Dykxhoorn DM, Pericak-Vance MA, Goldschmidt-Clermont PJ

One of many potential papers to come out of the GEAR study (Genomics of Exercise and Research).  This paper identified 39 genes that differed in expression between high and low responders to a 12-week exercise program.

2013: Erythropoietin

Author: Bunn HF

This review covers the discovery of erythropoietin, as well as its regulation, physiology, structure and clinical significance.

2013: Barefoot Running: Does it Prevent Injuries?

Authors: Murphy K, Curry EJ, Matzkin EG

This review looks at the pros and cons of barefoot running.  By reviewing literature on the subject, the authors concluded that there is no difference in injury rate between barefoot and shoe running.  However, switching over to barefoot running often causes injury if done to quickly.  The authors suggest that injured runners should attempt to change their stride before losing their shoes.

2013: Exercise and Ghrelin.  A narrative overview of research.

Authors: King JA, Wasse LK, Stensel DJ, Nimmo MA

This comprehensive review looks at the effects of exercise on the peptide hormone ghrelin.  Ghrelin is an appetite stimulating hormone.  Long-term exercise programs have no effect on ghrelin, but an acute, intense bout of exercise immediately suppresses ghrelin.

2013: Athlete Endorsements in Food Marketing

Authors:Bragg MA, Yanamadala S, Roberto CA, Harris JL, Brownell KD

This study showed that 79% of food brands that professional athletes endorse are nutrient-poor and energy-dense.  Adolescents were the most targeted group for advertisements with athletes endorsing unhealthy food.

2013: Neurotransmitter Switching in the Adult Brain Regulates Behavior

Authors: Dulcis D, Jamshidi P, Leutgeb S, Spitzer NC

Showed that neuronal neurotransmitter identity switches in response to different photoperiods in mice had a direct effect on their anxiety and stress.

2013: Effects of exercise on resting-state default mode and salience network activity in overweight/obese adults

Authors: McFadden KL, Cornier M, Melanson EL, Bechtell JL, Tregellas JR

Showed that six months of physical activity intervention caused a reduction in default mode network activity, a region in the brain linked to obesity.  Default mode network activity was measured using MRI.  However, no significant changes in appetite were measured.

2013: Participatory Workplace Interventions Can Reduce Sedentary Time for Office Workers

Authors: Parry S, Straker L, Gilson ND, Smith AJ

Showed that workplace health intervention strategies can successfully reduce sedentary time in Australian government office workers.

2013: Epo and Non-hematopoietic Cells: What Do We Know?

Authors: Ogunshola OO and Bogdanova AY

This review explains the physiological effects of EPO on the nervous system, cardiovascular system and pancreas.

2013: Meniscal, Plica, Patellar and Patellofemoral Injuries of the Knee

Authors: Morelli V and Braxton TM

A comprehensive review of a variety of knee injuries that are experienced by athletes.  The list of knee injuries covered includes runner’s knee, meniscus tears and patellar tendonitis.

2013: Breakfast consumption and exercise interact to affect cognitive performance and mood later in the day.  A randomized controlled trial

Authors: Veasey RC, Gonzalez JT, Kennedy DO, Haskell CF, Stevenson EJ

Found that eating breakfast prior to exercise improves mood and dampens tension after the exercise bout, even if a recovery snack is ingested post-bout.  Furthermore, exercise removes a decline in cognitive function typically seen after breakfast.

2013: Serotonin Is Required for Exercise-Induced Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis

Authors: Klempin F, Beis D, Mosienko V, Kempermann G, Bader M, Alenina N

Serotonin is necessary for inducing cerebral neurogenesis in response to exercise, but does not change baseline cerebral neurogenesis.

2013: Exercise benefits for the aging brain depend on the accompanying cognitive load: insights from sleep electroencephalogram

Author: Horne J

This paper discusses the implications of cognitive and physical activities performed concurrently.  Insight from sleep EEG is used to measure markers of neuroplasticity.

2013: Precooling Methods and Their Effects on Athletic Performance

Authors: Ross M, Abbiss C, Laursen P, Martin D, Burke L

A review of the applications of precooling.  Precooling is where athletes lower their core body temperature before an athletic competition to aid in thermoregulation.  This review provides a comprehensive review of many different precooling strategies including external and internal methods.

2013: Glucose levels and risk of dementia

Authors: Crane PK, Walker R, Hubbard RA, Li G, Nathan DM, Zeng H, Haneuse S, Craft S, Montine TJ, Kahn SE, McCormick W, McCurry SM, Bowen JD, Larson EB

Found a positive association between glucose levels in the blood and the risk of developing dementia in patients without diabetes.

2013: Economy and rate of carbohydrate oxidation during running with rear foot and forefoot strike patterns

Authors: Gruber AH, Umberger BR, Braun B, Hamill J

Showed that there is no significant difference in running economy as measured by VO2 in runners with a rear foot striking pattern and forefoot striking pattern.  However, carbohydrate utilization was slightly better in the habitual rear foot runners.

2013: Ageing is associated with diminished muscle re-growth and myogenic precursor cell expansion early after immobility-induced atrophy in human skeletal muscle

Authors: Suetta C, Frandsen U, Mackey AL, Jensen L, Hvid LG, Bayer ML, Petersson SJ, Schroder HD, Andersen JL, Aagaard P, Schjerling P, Kjaer M

Showed age related differences in muscle physiology during retraining from muscle atrophy.  They included type II muscle fiber area, Pax7+ stem cells per Type II fiber and myostatin expression.

2013: Aerobic exercise does not compromise muscle hypertrophy response to short-term resistance training

Authors: Lundberg TR, Fernandez-Gonzalo R, Gustafsson T, Tesch PA

Showed that aerobic exercise does not compromise muscle hypertrophy in response to resistance training.  However, maximum velocity and power was reduced by resistance training.

2013: Prenatal Programming of Hypertension Induces Sympathetic Overactivity in Response to Physical Stress

Authors: Mizuno M, Siddique K, Baum M, Smith SA

Implicated the sympathetic nervous system, specifically the exercise pressor reflex, in causing a relative increase in blood pressure in rats that were stressed during fetal development compared to unstressed controls.

2013: Abnormal heart rate recovery and chronotropic incompetence on exercise in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

Authors: Gupta M, Bansal V, Chhabra SK

A study finds that severity of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is correlated to chronotropic incompetence and abnormal heart rate recovery during exercise.

2013:Timing and distribution of protein ingestion during prolonged recovery from resistance exercise alters myofibrillar protein synthesis

Authors: Areta JL, Burke LM, Ross ML, Camera DM, West D, Broad EM, Jeacocke NA, Moore DR, Stellingwerff T, Phillips SM, Hawley JA, Coffey VG

Found that ingestion of four 20 gram servings of whey protein isolate every three hours following resistance training optimized muscle protein synthesis in the twelve hours post-exercise bout.  This study showed that the distribution and timing of protein ingestion following resistance training affect muscle protein synthesis in the anabolic phase.

2013: Effects of post-absorbative and postprandial exercise on 24 h fat oxidation

Authors: Shimada K, Yamamoto Y, Iwayama K, Nakamura K, Yamaguchi S, Hibi M, Nabekura Y, Tokuyama K

Showed that exercising on a fast (before breakfast) increased fat oxidation in the 24 hours following the workout without compromising total energy utilization.  In this experiment the researchers used a room calorimeter to measure energy expenditure.

2013: Brown adipose tissue regulates glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity

Authors: Stanford KI, Middelbeek RJ, Townsend KL, An D, Nygaard EB, Hitchcox KM, Markan KR, Nakano K, Hirshman MF, Tseng Y, Goodyear LJ

Experimentally inserted brown fat into obese mice fed a high-fat diet.  The brown fat increased insulin sensitivity and decreased weight gain in the mice.

2013: Understanding Physical Activity Outcomes as a Function of Teen Smoking Cessation

Authors: Horn K, Branstetter S, Zhang J, Jarret T, Tompkins NO, Anesetti-Rothermel A, Olfert M, Richards T, Dino G

Showed that physical activity encouragement with a smoking intervention course may reduce daily cigarette consumption and increase daily exercise several weeks after the end of the 10 week program.

2013: Effect of airline travel on performance: a review of the literature

Authors: Leatherwood WE and Drago JL

A review of airplane travel effect on athletic performance.  Airplane travel harms athletic performance because it disrupts the circadian rhythm via time zone changes and causes hypoxia inflight.

2013: The effect of cooling prior to and during exercise on exercise performance and capacity in the heat: a meta-analysis

Authors: Tyler CJ, Sunderland C, Cheung SS

A review of the effects of external precooling on athletic performance.

2013: Metabolic and Mechanical involvement of arms and legs in simulated double pole skiing

Authors: Rud B, Secher NH, Nilsson J, Smith G, Hallen J

This study found that increases in work rate on a cross country ski ergometer were generated by the legs as opposed to the arms when double pole technique was used.  Even at the low work rates the arms were at maximum aerobic capacity.

2013: 6 x 40 mins exercise improves body image, even through body weight and shape do not change

Author: Appleton KM

Found that two weeks of moderate exercise changes ones perception of his or her body without actually changing the body.  Thus, body image changes before visible body parameters.

2012:A PGC-1alpha Isoform Induced by Resistance training Regulates Skeletal Muscle Hypertrophy

Authors: Ruas JL, White JP, Rao RR, Kleiner S, Brannan KT, Harrison BC, Greene NP, Wu J, Estall JL, Irving BA, Lanza IR, Rasbach KA, Okutsu M, Nair KS, Yan Z, Leinwand LA, Spiegelman BM

This study found that isoforms of the transcriptional coactivator PGC-1alpha determines the resistance training and endurance training response.  PGC-1alpha4 is produced in response to endurance training and increases IGF-1 expression while reducing myostatin expression.  The overall effect is hypertrophy of the muscle fiber.

2012: Prenatal Stress, Telomere Biology, and Fetal Programming of Health and Disease Risk

Authors: Entringer S, Buss C, Wadhwa PD

Presentation on the role of prenatal stress in generating adulthood disease and the use of telomere length to predict potential prenatal stress induced diseases.

2012: Effects of supervised exercise training at the intensity of maximal fat oxidation in overweight young women

Authors: Tan S, Wang X, Wang J

Showed that exercise training increases exercise intensity of peak fat oxidation in overweight, young women.

2012: Selective Breeding for Endurance running capacity affects cognitive but not motor learning in rats

Authors: Wikgren J, Mertikas G, Raussi P, Tirkkonen R, Ayravaiinen L, Pelto-Huikko M, Koch LG, Britton SL, Kainulainen H

Selectively bred rats for endurance running capacity over 23 generations.  The high capacity bred runners displayed a higher cognitive learning ability (tested with a T-maze).  However, motor learning assayed with a rotarod was not significantly different.

2012: The Effects of Exercise on the Neuronal Response to Food Cues

Authors: Cornier M, Melanson EL, Salzberg AK, Bechtell JL, Tregellas JR

Exercise changes the how the brain responds to images of food.  The salience network, responsible for responding to internal and external stimuli, had reduced activity in exercised participants when shown images of food.  Salience network activity was measured using MRI.

2012: Voluntary resistance running with short distance enhances spatial memory related to hippocampal BDNF signaling

Authors: Lee MC, Okamoto M, Liu YF, Inoue K, Matsui T, Nogami H, Soya H

Found that resistance training increased cognition and memory relative to sedentary mice and running mice with no resistance.  This is the first study to suggest that quality trumps quantity regarding brain plasticity.

2012: Muscle fatigue and cognition:what is the link?

Authors: Kobilo T, van Praag H

Suggests that the AMPK agonist AICAR is responsible for causing exercise-induced neurogenesis and neuron retraction with overtraining.

2012: Executive Functions Predict the Success of Top-Soccer Players

Authors: Vestberg T, Gustafson R, Maurex L, Ingvar M, Petrovic P

This Swedish study found that executive function could be used to predict success of professional men and women soccer players.  In addition, as a whole, the professional soccer players as a whole had greater Design Fluency than people who are not professional soccer players.

2012: Local sweating on the forehead, but not forearm, is influenced by aerobic fitness independently of heat balance requirements during exercise.

Authors: Cramer MN, Bain AR, Jay O

This study showed that aerobically unfit individuals have a higher forehead sweat rate than fit individuals at the same cycle power output.  This lead the authors to believe that unfit individuals are not as efficient with their sweating due to dripping from the forehead.  At 60% of VO2MAX fit individuals had a higher sweat rate, likely because of a higher power output and therefore a higher evaporation requirement.

2012:Muscle-Specific VEGF Deletion Induces Muscle Capillary Rarefaction Creating Muscle Insulin Resistance

Authors: Bonner JS, Lantier L, Hasenour CM, James FD, Bracy DP, Wasserman DH

Showed that knocking out VEGF in mice models decreased insulin sensitivity and glucose uptake in the skeletal muscle.  Capillary proliferation was reduced.

2012: Sex differences in thermoeffector responses during exercise at fixed requirements for heat loss

Authors: Gagnon D, Kenny GP

Showed that females have a lower maximal sweat rate, but have equal thermoeffector responses to their male counterparts below this maximal sweat rate.

2012: VEGF Improves Skeletal Muscle Regeneration After Acute Trauma and Reconstruction of the Limb in a Rabbit Model

Authors: Frey SP, Jansen H, Raschke MJ, Meffert RH, Ochman S

In this study muscle damage was induced via treatment of rabbit limbs with ischemia.  The rabbits had a faster recovery when VEGF was locally administered.  The VEGF group had a faster damaged muscle regeneration because there was less connective scar tissue and force was restored faster and more fully.

2012:Voluntary scheduled exercise alters diurnal rhythms of behavior, physiology and gene expression in wild-type and vasoactive intestinal peptide-deficient mice

Authors: Schroeder AM, Truong D, Loh DH, Jordan MC, Roos KP, Colwell CS

Researchers at UCLA found that scheduled exercise affects circadian rhythm and may in some cases be able to restore circadian rhythm function.

2012: Effects of aerobic and/or resistance training on body mass and fat mass in overweight or obese adults

Authors: Wilis LH, Slentz CA, Bateman LA, Shileds AT, Piner LW, Bales CW, Houmard JA, Kraus WE

Showed that aerobic training is more efficient at promoting weight loss than resistance training.  Overall, resistance trainees did not lose weight because minor fat loss was offset by an increase in lean body mass.

2012: Potential Adverse Cardiovascular Effects From Excessive Endurance and Exercise

Authors: O’Keefe JH, Patil HR, Lavie CJ, Magalski A, Vogel RA, McCullough PA

Editorial arguing that prolonged, vigorous exercise may cause an increase in mortality by causing problems with cardiovascular function.

2012: Acute Exercise Remodels Promoter Methylation in Human Skeletal Muscle

Authors: Barres R, Yan J, Egan B, Treebak JT, Rasmussen M, Fritz T, Caidahl K, Krook A, O’Gorman DJ, Zierath JR

DNA methylation is altered by exercise in human subjects.  Intense exercise was necessary to induce the changes in DNA methylation.  Showed the signaling mechanism occurs within the contracting muscle fiber by contracting mouse soleus ex vivo.

2012: Cardiovascular drift and cerebral and muscle tissue oxygenation during prolonged cycling at different pedaling cadences

Authors: Kounalakis SN and Geladas ND

Found that a lower pedal cadence reduces cardiovascular drift even if external workload is the same.  In addition, the decrease in cardiac output correlated with a decrease in cerebral blood oxygenation, likely a major component of fatigue.

2012: An Analysis of Specific Lower Extremity Injury Rates on Grass and FieldTurf Playing Surfaces in National Football League Games : 2000-2009 Seasons

Authors: Hershman EB, Anderson R, Bergfeld JA, Bradley JP, Coughlin, Johnson RJ, Spindler KP, Wojtys E, Powell JW

Found that NFL games played on turf showed significantly higher rates of lower-leg injuries.

2012: Lifelong physical activity prevents an age-related reduction in arterial and skeletal muscle nitric oxide bioavailability in humans

Authors: Nyberg M, Blackwell JR, Damsgaard R, Jones AM, Hellsten Y, Mortensen SP

Found physical activity reduces age-related reduction in leg muscle NO.  The increase in NO results from observed increases in nitric oxide synthase and decreases in radical oxygen species.

2012: Consumption of a high-fat diet, but not regular endurance exercise training, regulates hypothalamic lipid accumulation in mice

Authors: Borg ML, Omran SF, Weir J, Meikle PJ, Watt MJ

Showed that a high fat diet causes lipids to accumulate in the hypothalamus.  The lipid accumulation in the hypothalamus could not be reversed with exercise.

2012: Proliferation of myogenic stem cells in human skeletal muscle in response to low-load resistance training with blood flow restriction

Authors: Nielsen JL, Aagaard P, Bech RD, Nygaard T, Hvid LG, Wernbom M, Suetta C, Frandsen U

Restricting blood flow to muscle fibers increased muscle function following a 19 day training program.  The increase in muscle contraction strength may have been due to several changes observed at the cellular and biochemical level in subjects with blood flow restriction.  These changes include increases in muscle stem cells, muscle fiber cross sectional area and myonuclei density.

2012: Running throughout Middle-Age Improves Memory function, Hippocampal Neurogenesis, and BDNF Levels in Female C57BI/6J Mice

Authors: Marlatt MW, Potter MC, Lucassen PJ, Praag H

Found that age-dependent reductions in neurogenesis could be alleviated by running in middle aged mice.  Analyzed BDNF levels, performance through a water maze, balance on a rotarod and an open field run.

2012: Mortality Among Marathon Runners in the United States, 2000-2009

Authors: Mathews SC, Narotsky DL, Bernholt DL, Vogt M, Hsieh Y, Pronovost PJ, Pham JC

Showed that despite a surge in marathon participants over the last decade, marathon mortality remains constant.  Average finish times of all participants have slightly decreased.

2012: Leg Dominance Is a Risk Factor for Noncontact Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries in Female Recreational Skiers

Authors: Rued G, Webhofer M, Helle K, Strobl M, Schranz A, Fink C, Gatterer H, Burtscher M

This study found that females, but not males, sustained a greater incidence of ACL injuries in their nondominant leg during alpine skiing.

2012: Long-term physical activity outcomes of home-based lifestyle interventions among breast and prostate cancer survivors

Authors: AJ Ottenbacher, RS Day, WC Taylor, SV Sharma, R Sloane, D CSnyder, IM Lipkus, LW Jones, W Demark-Wahnefried

Found that both tailored mail exercise interventions increased physical activity in sedentary cancer survivors.

2012: Association of Sleep Duration with Chronic Diseases in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Potsdam Study

Authors: A Ruesten, C Weikert, H Boeing

Found an association between a short nightly sleep duration and risk of developing chronic diseases such as cancer and stroke.

2012: Brain glycogen super compensation following exhaustive exercise

Authors: Takashi Matsui, Taro Ishikawa, Hitoshi Ito, Masahiro Okamoto, Koshiro Inoue, Min-chul Lee, Takahiko Fujikawa, Yukio Ichitani, Kentaro Kawanaka, Hideaki Soya

Exercise causes elevated glycogen levels in the brain.  Just as supercompensation occurs in the skeletal muscles following exercise, the brain adapts to exercise training by maintaining a higher level of glycogen.

2012:Elevated PGC-1alpha Activity Sustains Mitochondrial Biogenesis and Muscle Function Without Extending Survival in a Mouse Model of Inherited ALS

Authors: S Cruz, P Parone,V Lopes, C Lillo, M McAlonis-Downes, S Lee, A Vetto,S Petrosyan,M Marsala, A Murphy, D Williams, B Spiegelman, D Cleveland

Reported that raising levels of PGC-1alpha, a cofactor involved in cellular energy metabolism, reduced muscle degradation in ALS model mice.  PGC-1alpha did not increase survival or change the pathogenesis of ALS, but may provide a means of enhancing quality of life for terminal ALS patients.

2012: Short-term effects of daily aspirin on cancer incidence, mortality, and non-vascular death: analysis of the time course of risks and benefits in 51 randomised controlled trials

Authors: PM Rothwell, JF Price, GR Fowkes, A Zanchetti, MC Roncaglioni, G Tognoni, R Lee, JF Belch, M Wilson, Z Mehta, TW Meade

Aspirin reduces the risk of cancer mortality when administered for at least five years on a daily basis.

2012: A PGC1-alpha-dependent myokine that drives brown-fat-like development of white fat and thermogenesis

Authors: Bostrom P, Wu J, Jedrychowski MP, Korde A, Ye L, Lo JC, Rasbach KA, Bostrom EA, Choi JH, Long JZ, Kajimura S, Zingaretti MC, Vind BF, Tu H, Cinti S, Hojund K, Gygi SP, Spiegelman BM

Exercise increases hormone irisin levels in mice models via the factor PGC1-alpha.  Irisin leads to the conversion of white fat to brown fat.  Brown fat fights obesity and increases glucose tolerance.

2011: A prospective randomised longitudinal MRI study of left ventricular adaptation to endurance and resistance exercise training in humans

Authors: Spence AL, Naylor LH, Carter HH, Buck CL. Dembo L, Murray CP, Watson P, Oxborough D, George KP, Green DJ

Showed that the left ventricular wall and left ventricular volume increasesed in response to endurance training.  No change was observed in response to resistance training.  This study used MRI on subjects participating in a 24-week training program.

2011: Limiting the impact of light pollution on human health, environment and stellar visibility

Authors: F. Falchi, P. Cinzano, C. Elvidge, D. Keith, A Haim

The switch of lighting from widely used sodium lamps to metallic halides (MH) and LEDs may cause a 500% increase in the damage to the melatonin production system.  This is because melatonin production is inhibited by blue spectrum light, which is used by  MHs and LEDs.  The authors warned against possible ramifications of this switch to known and unknown affects on human health and the environment.

2011: Sunlight and dietary contributions to the seasonal vitamin D status of cohorts of healthy postmenopausal women living at northerly latitudes: a major cause for concern?

Authors: HM Macdonald, A Mavroeidi, WD Fraser, AL Darling, AJ Black, L Aucott, F O’Neill, K Hart, JL Berry, SA Lanham-New, DM Reid

Women often only partially make-up for seasonal lack of sunlight in the winter.

2011:Cigarette Smoke Inhibits Brain Mitochondrial Adaptations of Exercised Mice

Authors: Speck AE and Fraga D, Soares P, Scheffer DL, Silva LA, Aguiar AS, Estreck EL, Pinho RA

Cigarette smoking inhibits the mitochondrial synthesis response to exercise.

2011: A pilot study of qigong practice and upper respiratory illness in elite swimmers.

Authors: PA Wright, KE Innes, J Alton, VE Bovbjerg, JE Owens

Found that there is an inverse relationship between upper respiratory illness symptoms and qigong practice frequency in a study of 27 varsity swimmers for the University of Virginia.

2011: Employment and work schedule are related to telomere length in women

Authors: CG Parks, LA DeRoo, DB Miller, EC McCanlies, RM Cawthon, DP Sandler

Women who work full-time were shown to have much shorter telomeres, a sign of cellular aging.2011: Dietary and Behavioral Interventions Protect against Age Related Activation of Caspase Cascades in the Canine Brain

Authors:  Shikha Snigdha, Nicole Berchtold, Giuseppe Astarita, Tommy Saing, Daniele Piomelli, and Carl W. Cotman

Exercise (2-20 min walk) by itself and in combination with an enhanced diet decreased aging’s affect on the brain in beagles over a 2.8 year period.

2011:Abdominal symptoms during physical exercise and the role of gastrointestinal ischaemia: a study in 12 symptomatic athletes

Authors: Rinze WF ter Steege, Robert H Geelkerken, Ad B Huisman, Jeroen J Kolkman

Study found that abdominal pain in 12 athletes was caused by gastrointestinal ischeamia.  The authors used exercise tonometry as diagnostic tool and their advice reduced the complaints of gastrointestinal ischeamia in the athletes.

2011: Foot clearance in walking and running in individuals with ankle instability

Author: Cathleen Brown

Research found differences in the running and walking kinematics of individuals who had suffered an ankle sprain in the previous year and developed chronic ankle instability or did not develop chronic ankle instability.

2011: A Longitudinal Examination of the Link Between Youth Physical Fitness and Academic Achievement

Authors: Rebecca London and Sebastian Sebastian

This longitudinal study tracked 6th through 9th graders academic achievement as a function of their ability to pass a fitness test.  The study found a growing achievement gap between those able to pass the the test and those unable to pass the test.

2011: Relationship of Nutrition and Physical Activity Behaviors and Fitness Measures to Academic Performance for Sixth Graders in a midwest City School District

Authors: Jane Edwards, Lois Mauch, Mark Winkelman

This study found nutrition intake, physical activity behavior and fitness could predict academic performance.  Students who reported excessive television usage, drinking lots of sweetened beverages, skipping breakfast and drinking less milk were found to have a lower mean academic performance in math and/or reading. Students reporting more physical activity, playing on a sports team and better mile run performance had a higher  mean academic performance in math and/or reading.

2011: Employment and Physical Activity in the U.S.

Authors: D Domelen, A Koster, P Caserotti, R Brychta, K Chen, J McClain, R Troiano, D Berrigan, T Harris

In a cross sectional study males and females physical activity was measured with  a hip accelerometer.  Employed men were found to be more active, even on weekdays, than unemployed healthy males.  However, women who worked full-time were found to be less physically active than women who are unemployed.  Large discrepancies in physical activity were found within full-time workers depending on if their job was categorized as sedentary or active.

2011: Feasibility of a lifestyle intervention for ovarian cancer patients receiving adjust chemotherapy

Authors: Gruenigen VE, Frasure HE, Kavanagh MB, Lerner E, Waggoner SE, Courneya KS

Found that physical activity and nutritional counseling increased physical activity participation, nutritional dietary intake and quality of life in ovarian cancer patients being treated with chemotherapy.

2010: Exercise Plays a Preventive Role Against Alzheimer’s Disease

Authors: Zsolt Radak, Nikoletta Hart, Linda Sarga, Erika Koltai, Mustafa Atalay, Hideki Ohno, Istvan Boldog

A review of biological mechanisms by which exercise reduces the risk of Alzheimer’s.  Looked at the neuro-factors, toxins, gene expression, cerebral metabolism and cerebral blood flow as potential pathways between exercise and Alzheimer’s Disease risk.

2010: Exposure to room light before bedtime suppresses melatonin onset and shortens melatonin duration in humans.

Authors: Division of Sleep Medicine, Brigham and Women’s Hospital and Harvard Medical School; Gooley, Chamberlain, Smith, Khalsa, Rajaratnam, Van Reen, Zeitzer, Czeisler, Lockley

In a study with 116 subjects, it was found that melatonin production was reduced by 90 minutes from dim light or bedroom light.

2010: Myonuclei acquired by overload exercise precede hypertrophy and are not lost on detraining

Authors: Bruusgaard JC, Johansen IB, Egner IM, Rana ZA, Gundersen K

Showed that myonuclei gained during muscle overload were not lost in subsequent detraining of muscle fiber via muscle denervation.  This suggests a likely mechanism for the quick regain of muscle mass during retraining, termed “muscle memory”.

2010: Retrograde influence of muscle fibers on their innervation revealed by a novel marker for slow motor neurons

Authors: Chakkalakal JV, Nishimune H, Ruas JL, Spiegelman BM, Sanes JR

Found that SV2A can be used as a marker of slow motoneurons.  Using SV2A as a slow motor neuron marker, the researchers found that slow motor neurons increased when muscle fibers were turned into slow muscle fibers with PGC-1alpha.  This demonstrates retrograde influence of muscle fibers on motor neurons.

2010:Genetic Evidence for High Altitude Adaptation in Tibet

Authors: Tatum S. Simonson, Yingzhong Yang, Chad D. Huff, Haixia Yun, Ga Qin, David J. Witherspoon, Zhenzhong Bai, Felipe R. Lorenzo, Jinchuan Xing, Lynn B. Jorde, Josef T. Prchal, RiLi Ge

A genetics study of the hypoxic genes in Tibetans.  Found 10 genes associated with hypoxia and unique to Tibetans as identified with SNPs.

2010: The Power of Exercise: Buffering the Effect of Chronic Stress on Telomere Length

Authors: Eli Puterman, Jue Lin, Elizabeth Blackburn, Aoife O’Donovan, Nancy Adler, Elissa Epel

Shows that the negative correlation between stress and telomere (the protective DNA at the end of a chromosome) length disappears in subjects who are physically active.

2010: Human Brown Adipose Tissue

Author: Sven Enerbäck.

This review discussed the discovery that brown adipose tissue (BAT) exists in human adults.

2010: Exercise-induced VEGF transcriptional activation in brain, lung and skeletal muscle

Authors: Kechun Tang, Feng Cheng Xia, Peter D. Wagner, Ellen C. Breen

This study compared the mechanism of VEGF expression between mice subject to an hour bout of exercise and mice subject to 2 hours of 6% oxygen. Found that exercise increases VEGF levels in the brain, skeletal muscles and lungs, but not the heart or liver.  Hypoxia conditions increased VEGF levels in the brain only.

2010: Gender influences: the role of leg dominance in ACL injury among soccer players

Authors: Brophy R, Silvers HJ, Gonzales T, Mandelbaum BR

Found that 68% of ACL injuries in female soccer players are sustained in the non dominant leg (support leg during a kick) compared to 26% of ACL injuries in males.

2010: Physical activities and future risk of Parkinson Disease

Authors: Q. Xu, Y. Park, X. Huang, A. Hollenbeck, A. Blair, A. Schatzkin, H. Chen

This ten-year study of 200,000 plus people found that those who reported participating in physical activity had a significantly reduced chance (40%) of being diagnosed with Parkinson’s disease 4-10 years later.

2010: Shift work: coping with the biological clock

Author: Josephine Arendt

Showed that failure of the biological clock, or circadian rhythm as it is scientifically known, results in an increased risk of certain cancers, cardiovascular disease and an abnormal metabolism.

2010: Resistance Training Prevents Deterioration in Quadracepts Muscle Function During Acute Exacerbations of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

Authors: Troosters T, Probst VS, Crul T, Pitta F, Gayan-Ramirez G, Decramer M, Gosselink R

The study showed that resistance training could prevent crippling deteriation of the quadriceps muscle during an acute exacerbation of COPD.

2009:The evolution of speed, size and shape in modern athletics

Authors: Charles JD and Bejan A

This analysis of body shape of world record holders in the 100m sprint in track and the 100m freestyle in swim showed that their height and body mass has been increasing for the last century along with dramatic increases in speed.

2009: Physical Activity, Diet, and Risk of Alzheimer Disease

Authors: Nikolaos Scarmeas, Jose A. Luchsinger, Nicole Schupf, Adam M. Brickman, Stephanie Cosentino, Ming X. Tang, Yaakov Stern

This study discovered correlations between diet health, physical activity level and risk of developing Alzheimer’s in 1880 elderly study participants over a 5.4 year average duration.

2009: Changes in Blood Flow, Temperature and Muscle Endurance in Association with Cryotherapy

Authors: Utsunomiya M, Nitta K, Sawagichi H, Yozhika A, Karasuno H, Morozumi K, Allison G, Fujiwara T, Abe K

Showed that the benefits of icing were instantaneous, that is duration to fatigue was extended during a second bout of isometric contractions immediately following a ten minute period of icing.  In addition, blood flow and deep muscle tissue temperature were reduced by icing.

2009: Reduced Sleep Duration or Quality: Relationships With Insulin Resistance and Type 2 Diabetes

Authors: Esra Tasali, Rachel Leproult, Karine Spiegel

This article looks at the effect sleep deprivation has on type 2 diabetes risk though the mechanism of glucose metabolism, insulin levels, brain activity, glucose regulation hormones and obstructive sleep apnea.

2009: Day Napping and Short Night Sleeping Are Associated With Higher Risk of Diabetes in Older Adults

Authors: Qun Xu, Yiqing Song, Albert Hollenbeck, Aaron Blair, Arthur Schatzkin, Honglei Chen

Found that people who reported day napping were more likely to report development of new diabetes.  In addition, daytime napping was found to affect the association between nighttime sleep duration and new diabetes risk.

2009: TNF-alpha Mediated Reduction in PGC-alpha May Impair Skeletal Muscle Function After Cigarette Smoke Exposure

Authors: Kechun Tang, Peter D. Wagner, Ellen C. Breen

Established a link between TNF-alpha and PGC-1alpha as the causes for muscle degradation in patients with COPD.

2009: Exercise improves cognition and hippocampal plasticity in APOE epsilon4 mice.

Authors: K Nichol, SP Deeny, J Seif, K Camaciang, Carl W. Cotman

This study found that exercise increases cognition capacity of mice as measured by radial-arm water maze.  In addition, exercise was found to increase synaptic connectivity and hippocampus performance.

2008: Is Exercise Protective Against Influenza-Associated Mortality?

Authors: C. Wong, H. Lai, C Ou, S. Ho, K. Chan, T. Thach, L. Yang, Y. Chau, T. Lam, A. Hedley, J. Peiris

A statistical analysis of Hong Kong residents’ influenza-associated mortality and physical exercise rate was performed.  The analysis found that residents who reported participating in moderate exercise had a lower risk of influenza mortality than those who cited never/seldom exercise and those who cited frequent exercise.

2008: Peak fat oxidation rate during walking in sedentary overweight men and women

Authors: Bogdanis GC, Vangelakoudi A, Maridaki M

Found that the exercise intensity of peak fat oxidation is similar in male and female overweight subjects.  The exercise intensity was on average lower than normal subjects.

2007: Two routes to functional adaptation: Tibetan and Andean high-altitude natives

Author: Cynthia M. Beall

A review of the physiological adaptations developed by Tibetans and Andeans to allow them to cope with the hypoxia (oxygen depletion) associated with living at extreme altitude.

2007: Prospective Study of Incident Age-Related Macular Degeneration in Relation to Vigorous Physical Activity during a 7-Year Follow-up

Author: Paul T. Williams

When controlling for other factors, weekly running mileage shows a strong negative correlation with contraction of incident age-related macular degeneration, an ocular disease that can leads to vision impairment.

2007: Association between physical activity and quality of life in ovarian cancer survivors

Authors: C Stevinson, W Faught, H Steed, K Tonkin, A Ladha, J Vallace, V Capstick, A Schepansky, K Courneya

Looked at the dosage of exercise with the affect on quality of life in ovarian cancer survivors.  This study found that those meeting or exceeding the American Cancer Society physical activity guidelines showed significant improvements in quality of life.

2007: Muscle injuries: optimizing recovery

Authors: Jarvinen TAH, Jarvinen TL, Aarimaa V, Vaittinen S, Kalimo H, Jarvinen M

Review of muscle injuries, their treatment and diagnosis.  Immediate treatment of muscle injury is known as RICE: rest, ice, compression and elevation.

2006: Warming Up With an Ice Vest: Core Body Temperature Before and After Cross-Country Racing,

Authors: Hunter I, Hopkins JT, Casa DJ

This study found that wearing a Nike Ice Vest resulted in a decreased core body temperature before and after a cross country race.  The athletes were NCAA Division I cross country runners.  However, the effect on performance was not measured.

2006: Chocolate Milk as a Post-Exercise Recovery Aid

Authors: Karp JR, Johnston JD, Tecklenburg S, Mickleborough TD, Fly AD, Stager JM

Showed that chocolate milk works better as a recovery drink than Endurox and as well as, if not better than, Gatorade.

2005 Hyponatremia among Runners in the Boston Marathon

Authors: Almond CSD, Shin AY, Fortescue EB, Mannix RC, Wypij D, Binstadt BA, Duncan CN, Olson DP, Salerno AE, Newburger JW, Greenes DS

Found that 13% of Boston marathon finishers had hyponatremia following the race. This was associated with finishing time and weight gain.

2005: High incidence of diabetes in men with sleep complaints or short sleep duration: a 12-year follow-up study of a middle-aged population

Authors: Malton L, Broman JE, Hetta J

Found that men who reported trouble initiating sleep, problems maintaining sleep or a short sleep duration at baseline had an increased chance of reporting new diabetes onset in a 12-year follow up.  The study did not find similar links in women, although it did find a weak correlation between new diabetes onset and women reporting nine or more hours of sleep per a night.

2005: Skeletal Muscle Glucose Uptake During Exercise: How is it Regulated?

Authors: Rose AJ and Richter EA

Discusses the possible means by which exercise increases insulin-independent glucose uptake.  The pathway goes through the GLUT4 transporter.  Contraction-inducing calcium influxes in the myocyte may play a role in increasing GLUT4 on the plasma membrane.

2005: Processing Strawberries to Different Products Alters Contents of Vitamin C, Total Phenolics, Total Anthocyanins, and Antioxidant Capacity

Authors: Yvonne Klopotek, Konrad Otto, Volker Böhm

Strawberries nutritional content was measured as it was processed to juice, nectar, wine and puree.  The scientists found that fermentation and pasteurization created the greatest loss in nutritional content (measured by the amount of vitamin C, phenolics and anthocyanin retained).

2004: Effects of acute 60 and 80% VO2max bouts of aerobic exercise on state anxiety of women of different age groups across time.

Authors: RH Cox, TR Thomas, PS Hinton, OM Donahue

Exercise decreases anxiety as measured with a Spielberger State Anxiety Inventory in women regardless of age.  Increased intensity from 60 to 80% showed a decrease in anxiety 30 minutes post-exercise interval, but not immediately after.

2004: Skeletal Muscle Adaptation: training twice every second day vs training once daily

Authors: Anne K. Hansen, Christian P. Fischer, Peter Plomgaard, Jesper Løvind Andersen, Bengt Saltin, and Bente Klarlund Pedersen

This elegant study found that training with glycogen starvation optimized leg performance in seven healthy, untrained men.

2004: Accelerated telomere shortening in response to life stress.

Authors: Epel ES, Blackburn EH, Lin J, Dhabhar FS, Adler NE, Morrow JD, Cawthon RM

This study found that women who were caring for a chronically ill child should telomere shortening that correlated with the number of years caring for the child.  The study also found a negative correlation between perceived stress level and telomere length.

2004: Exercise treatment for depression: Efficacy and dose response

Authors: Andrea Dunn, Madhukar Trivedi, James Kampert, Camillia Clark, Heather Chambliss

Using a control and experimental group, moderate dose (17.5 Cal/kg/week) exercise was shown to be an effective treatment for people with moderate major depressive disorder.  However, low dose (7 Cal/kg/week) exercise was comparable to a control group.

2003: Exercise induces behavioral recovery and attentuates neurochemical deficits in rodent models of Parkinson’s disease

Authors: JL Tillerson, WM Caudle, ME Reveron, GW Miller

This study used neurotoxins to reduce dopamine pathway neurochemicals.  Exercise was found to reduce the drop in the neurochemicals and reduce the loss of motor function.  This suggests a pathway by which exercise may affect Parkinson’s Disease patients.

2003: Two years of resistance training in older men and women: the effects of three years of detraining on the retention of dynamic strength

Authors: Smith K, Winegard K, Hicks AL, McCartney N

Showed that muscular effects of training are retained for at least three years.  Elderly participants completed a two year training regimen followed by three years of detraining.  Even after the three year detraining phase those who had completed the two year training program had significantly better fitness.

2002: The Unknown Mechanism of the Overtraining Syndrome

Authors: Armstrong LE, VanHeest JL

A comprehensive review of overtraining syndrome and its link to major depression.

2001: Cardiovascular Drift During Prolonged Exercise: New Perspectives

Authors: Coyle EF and Alonso JG

Review of the causes of cardiovascular drift.  Cardiovascular drift is caused by a sweat-related loss in blood volume and core body temperature stimulated sympathetic chronotropic (increased heart rate) effect on the heart.

2001: Exercise in chronic pulmonary disease: aerobic exercise prescription

Author: Christopher B. Cooper

Found that aerobic exercise prescription for chronic obtrusive pulmonary disease should be scientifically based with consideration for the exercise mode(use large muscles, like the legs), frequency(at least 3×30 min/week, intensity, and progression (10% increase/month).

2001: Melanoma Risk in Relation to Height, Weight, and Exercise (United States)

Authors: Andrew Shors, Cam Solomon, Anne McTiernan and Emily White

Found that there is a positive correlation between height, weight and exercise and melanoma risk.  The authors speculated that an increased weight and height increases the amount of skin cells on the body surface that can possibly become cancerous.  Weight and height explained some, but not all, of the correlation between risk of developing melanoma and weekly exercise.

2000: The symptomology of upper respiratory tract infections and exercise in elderly people

Authors: Kostka, Berthouze, Lacour, Bonnefoy

This study found an inverse relationship between physical activity and upper respiratory tract infections in healthy, elderly people.  This study looked as the number of days and number of independent episodes of upper respiratory tract infections in subjects from ages 66-84.

1999: Effects of cold water immersion on the symptoms of exercise-induced muscle damage

Authors: Roger Eston and Daniel Peters

Found that muscle damage peaked between 24 and 72 hours after exercise.  Cryotherapy reduced muscle damage as measured by creatine kinase activity at 48 and 72 hours following the bout of exercise.

1999: Effects of cold water immersion on the symptoms of exercise-induced muscle damage

Authors: Roger Eston and Daniel Peters

Found that muscle damage peaked between 24 and 72 hours after exercise.  Cryotherapy reduced muscle damage as measured by creatine kinase activity at 48 and 72 hours following the bout of exercise.

1994: Effects of Physical Activity on Psychological Variables in Adolescents

Authors: Karen J. Calfas, Wendell C. Taylor

Physical activity was consistently related to improvements in self-esteem, self-concept, depressive symptoms, and anxiety/stress.  Authors recommend that “Adolescents should engage in moderate or vigorous aerobic activity approximately three times per week for a total of at least 60 minutes per week.”

1992: Influence of graded dehydration on hyperthermia and cardiovascular drift during exercise

Authors: Mountain SJ and Coyle EF

Showed that hydrating has a graded effect on decreasing cardiovascular drift (increased heart rate, decreasing stroke volume and cardiac output).  It should be noted that this study was sponsored by Gatorade.

1991: Reductions In Exercise Lactic Acidosis And Ventilation As A Result Of Exercise Training In Patients With Obstructive Lung Disease

Authors: A Patessio, F Ioli , S Zanaboni,  C Donner, K Wasserman

Showed that exercise physiologically helps patients suffering with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease by decreasing lactate levels. Study found that a greater affect was produced by increased intensity even if the total work performed was the same.

1991: Strength and skeletal muscle adaptations in heavy-resistance-trained women after detraining and retraining

Authors: Staron RS, Leonardi MJ, Karapondo DL, Malicky ES, Falkel JE, Hagerman FC, Hikida RS

Divided women into training groups.  One group trained for 20 weeks, detrained for 32 weeks and resumed training for six weeks.  The other group did the same thing without the initial 20 week training regimen.  The first group regained muscle mass much faster than the second group which did not do the initial 20 week training regimen.  This suggested muscle memory.

1991: The Durations of Human Melatonin Secretion and Sleep Respond to Changes in Daylength (Photoperiod)

Author: Dr. Thomas Wehr

This study showed through artificial photoperiods that melatonin production, a hormone regulating sleep, could be impacted.  Melatonin is inhibited by light and regulates seasonal biological functions.

1991: Maximal oxygen uptake as a predictor of performance ability in women and men elite cross-country skiers

Author: Ingjer F

Showed that aerobic capacity can be used to predict if an elite skier is world-class, good, or moderate.

1990: Infectious episodes in runners before and after the Los Angeles Marathon

Authors: Nieman DC, Johanssen LM, Lee JW, Arabatzis K

Found that 12.2% runners who participated in the 1987 Los Angeles Marathon reported an infectious episode in the week following the marathon versus 2.2% of similarly experienced runners who did not participate in the marathon.  The study also found a positive correlation between weekly running mileage and infectious episodes in the two months prior to the marathon.

1989: Physical Fitness and All-Cause Mortality

Authors: Steven N. Blair, PED; Harold W. Kohl III, MSPH; Ralph S Paffenbarger, MD; Debra G. Clark, MS; Kenneth H. Cooper, MD, MPH; Larry W. Gibbons, MD, MPH

This 7 year study looked at mortality rates of 13,000+ healthy, middle and upper class men and women.  This study found that a low physical fitness posed a greater mortality risk than smoking and a family history of coronary disease.

1988:Effects of repeated days of intensified training on muscle glycogen and swimming performance

Authors: Costill DL, Flynn MG, Kirwan JP, Houmard JA, Mitchell JB, Thomas R, Park SH

Studied 12 elite swimmers who doubled their mileage for ten consecutive days.  Found those unable to complete the training regime had significant muscle glycogen depletion, likely the result of not eating enough carbs.

1987: Psychological monitoring of overtraining and staleness

Authors: Morgan WP, Brown DR, Raglin JS, O’Connor PJ, Ellickson KA

This was a ten-year study of collegiate women swimmers at University of Michigan-Madison.  They found that mood state changed with training volume in a dose dependent manner.  80% of athletes with overtraining syndrome were clinically diagnosed with depression.

1985: The 6-minute walk: a new measure of exercise capacity in patients with chronic heart failure

Authors: Gordon H. Guyatt, Michael J. Sullivan, Penelope J. Thompson, Ernest L. Fallen, Stewart O. Pugsley, D. Wayne Taylor, and Leslie B. Berman

In a study with elderly respiratory and cardiac patients, it was found that after two weeks a six-minute walking test was a reliable measurement of functional exercise.  This study is significant because it meant that elderly or disabled patients, for whom a treadmill or cycle ergometer is not a viable option of testing, have an alternative method of measuring functional exercise fitness for study or treatment purposes.

1985: Increased Muscle Glucose Uptake After Exercise: No Need for Insulin During Exercise

Authors: Richter EA, Ploug T, Galbo H

Showed that exercise increases glucose uptake in the skeletal muscle independent of insulin activity.  Suggested a new way to control diabetes.

1985: Physical activity, exercise, and physical fitness: definitions and distinctions for health-related research.

Authors: C J Caspersen, K E Powell, and G M Christenson

Proposed definitions and use for scholarly terms physical fitness, exercise and physical activity.

1984: A natural history of Athleticism and Cardiovascular Health

Authors: Ralph S. Paffenbarger, Jr, MD, DPH; Robert T. Hyde, MA; Alvin L. Wing, MBA; Charles H. Steinmetz, MD, PhD

Summary: Rigorous physical activity, not athleticism, determines risk of cardiovascular disease.  Study followed 16,936 Harvard alumni and categorized athleticism based on varsity or intramural sport participation during collegiate career and alumnus physical activity based on estimated Calories burned per week through exercise.  Analysis of results show that physical activity as an alumnus, not collegiate athleticism, determines cardiovascular disease risk.  Authors argued that their study demonstrates reason to modify physical activity and that diet is not enough to combat cardiovascular risk.

1980: Vigorous Exercise In Leisure-Time: Protection Against Coronary Heart Disease

Author: J.N. Morris, R. Pollard, M.G. Everitt, S.P.W. Chave, A.M. Semmence

This study looked at civil service office workers.  During the 8.5 years of this study’s duration, those who reported participating in vigorous exercise were half as likely to suffer from coronary heart diseasey